## Why does E/m = c^2?

Einstein’s famous equation E = mc^2 encapsulates the relationship between mass and energy. However, explaining the appearance of the square of the speed of light as a constant of proportionality proved to be an insurmountable challenge for physicists. They could only point out the colossal energy contained in a small amount of mass, which is immediately obvious from the magnitude of the speed of light. But, why the speed of light? What is its significance in the relationship? And why squared?
These and many other questions in physics remain unanswered, because the source of physical reality and the effect it has on all physical phenomena have been totally discarded. Therefore, phenomena such as matter, mass, energy, electric charge, light, gravity, time, etc., treated as independent quantities that arise out of nothing!

In this post, I shall reveal the reason behind the appearance of the speed of light [c], in Einstein’s equation and explain why it has to be squared. This, I shall do with reference to the fabric of space and the nature of matter and energy as quantities derived from that fabric. And in order to save the reader going over previous posts for the relevant information, I shall begin by defining those parameter. However, for the sake of brevity, I shall not explain why those definitions hold true. Continue reading “Why does E/m = c^2?”

## Modelling Supernovae & Black Holes!

Given the existence of a space fabric as a fluid medium with which matter interacts, it is possible to physically model many physical phenomena at both quantum and galactic levels. Discarding the existence and effect of such a medium is the main reason behind the irreconcilability of some theories and inexplicable behaviour of objects at both quantum and galactic levels.

To develop a conceptual model of a system, the conscious mind begins by linking simple concepts to form mathematical relations. For example, by realizing that the flow rate from a water tap depends on the number of tap turns, a mathematical model is developed. It is then possible to relate the volume of water collected to the duration it takes to collected it, for a given number of tap turns. Relating a system’s variables to each other correctly is all that is needed to develop a mathematical model. This simple water-tap example could be extended to predict the flow rate of water through any pipe. To do that, the model must include all relevant parameters that affect water flow, which include pressure head, pipe diameter, length, and surface roughness. Continue reading “Modelling Supernovae & Black Holes!”

## π in the sky!

In this post I shall discuss the nature of π as a mathematical constant and reveal its relationship with the fabric of space. As an irrational number π represents the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio (a/b), where (a) and (b) are integers and (b≠0).

Returning briefly to the cubical universe, which we considered in a previous post, if the observer there begins to probe his world at the level of the individual cubes defining his space and decides to form different geometries at that level, he could do so only by using those cubes. He would have no other means. Using cubes to define circles, he would soon discover that the geometric properties of his circles vary according to the orientation of the cubes. For example, the number of elements defining the diameter of the same circle could vary depending upon the orientation of the cubes in the circumference. Therefore, in a universe defined by cubical elements π, as the ratio of the units of length of a circle’s circumference to that of its diameter, cannot be constant. Continue reading “π in the sky!”

## Complex Numbers Unravelled

In mathematics and in physics, the reality behind complex numbers remains mysterious. Although they are essential to solving fundamental problems in science and engineering, their true relationship with the physical world is unknow. For example, why do they have two components- referred to as real and imaginary parts? Why is the imaginary part closely linked to the square root of minus one? And most importantly, what is their relationship with physical reality. In this post, I answer those questions and unravel the mystery of complex numbers. Continue reading “Complex Numbers Unravelled”