The UP hypothesis, which is the subject of my book ‘Physical Reality – the fabric of space’, describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter particles as localized dynamic structures, with mass being the background vacuum exposed by the dynamics of the elements forming the particles. It defines energy as the motion of those elements relative to the observer and identifies two types of motions induced by matter particles in the surrounding medium— one is oscillatory and the other is uniform angular motion. Whilst we distinguish the former as thermal energy, the latter represents quantum fields rotating around the particles that induce them. Other types of motion of the elements are possible, but they are not produced by individual matter particles. Rather, they are the result of the action of systems of forces.
Quantum fields are generated by the spin of the source particles, which is essentially the rotation of the structure formed by the elements of the fabric of space. The quantum field of a particle decrease in intensity with increased radial distance. When particles condense to form an object, their quantum fields merge producing much stronger field around the entire object, hence the relationship between mass and quantum field intensity. Like that of a particle, the speed of rotation, hence the observed magnitude of such a field drops with increased distance from the object. Consequently, an object crossing it experiences acceleration as it nears the source object, hence the concept of warping of space-time and acceleration due to gravity.
It is worth noting that whilst gravity is experienced as a result of crossing the quantum field, in this case considered a gravitational field, the other quantum forces, namely the nuclear, the electromagnetic and the weak forces are much stronger than gravity because they emanate from the negative pressure of exposed background vacuum (mass). Given the hypothesis’ definitions of the fabric of space, matter particles, mass and energy, it is easy to envisage the consequences of particle collisions in high-energy accelerators. Since any volume of background vacuum exposed through the fabric of space is essentially mass, any such volume must be considered a particle of some sort.
Consider the example of air bubbles in a liquid medium, say water, to give analogy to the situation of subatomic particle collisions. If the bubbles are forced to collide at some speed the outcome could be that they breakup into several small bubbles or they could form one large bubble or one might cross the other and they remain the same. The outcome depends upon the speed of collision, which reflects the energy level. However, where this example differs from the reality of the world of subatomic particles is that mass, as a void in the fabric of space, is under negative pressure. As such, it requires stable structure to maintain it. If that structure collapses the particles decay, appearing ultimately as an increased amplitude of oscillation of the surrounding elements of space— i.e., they appear as energy.
Based on this interpretation of the reality of matter, mass and energy, one can appreciate the endless range of particles that might appear in particle collisions as a result of varying collision energies. Therefore, those particles cannot be elementary entities that somehow come together to form larger subatomic particles. They are the broken parts of otherwise stable elementary subatomic particles. They are the divided or merged masses of the original particles, like the air bubbles that breakup or merge in collision.
Therefore, as particle collisions reach higher and higher energies more and more particles will appear. However, except for the four stable particles, namely, the proton and its antiparticle and the electron and its antiparticle, none of the other particles, not even the neutron can remain stable outside the atom. In fact, the case of the neutron is that its structure can remain stable only inside the atom because of the action of the protons either side of it. Unfortunately, details of the structural configuration of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules are beyond the scope of the post, but will be the subject of future posts.
Clearly, the difference between the two types of particles in the standard model, known as force carries (bosons) and matter particles (fermions), is that the former particles have simple structure that maintains their mass, and as such they collapse on encountering matter particles. In the process, they cause the collapse or partial collapse (decay) of matter particles. Bosons are also referred to as carriers of the weak force. In contrast, carrier of the nuclear or strong force, namely the gluon is protected by stable structure in the atomic nucleus and as such it is much hard to collapse. Photons, which are considered carriers of the electromagnetic force, have no structure whatever. They are effectively three-dimensional solitons which transfer their momentum to the objects on which they collapse, they then rebound and continue to move on at the same constant speed, namely the speed of light!