In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.
In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.
In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.
The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.
The hypothesis states:
‘The fabric of space is a medium of homogenous, spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter and energy in otherwise vacuum background. Time in space is a consequence of their local and global dynamics relative to the background vacuum. The diameter of an element is the Planck length (1.6 x 10−35 m), and the elements oscillate with an invariable period equals the Planck time (10-43 s), irrespective of their amplitude. In the absence of the effect of matter, the elements exist under neutral pressure, experiencing no force whatever. Their spherical geometry is maintained by their continuity in space and alternating spin and counter-spin, which they acquire through eccentric collisions as they oscillate.’
From the above statement of the hypothesis, we can deduce the following:
A stable matter particle develops as a group of elements forming a localised dynamic structure capable of creating and maintaining a constant volume of exposed background vacuum (mass). A structure of that nature forms as follows:
When a pair of oscillating elements collide eccentrically at a relatively high amplitude, they become elongated in the plane of spin. In effect, they become strings rotating in opposite directions to one another, with each element exposing a specific volume of background vacuum (mass) as it rotates. The elements cause immediate change in pressure distribution in their locality— with mass under negative pressure and the surrounding elements under positive pressure. This pressure distribution is a function of the mass and it sums up to zero.
If both elements remain in the locality in which they form for any length of time, they would regain their spherical geometry, lose their masses and vanish as virtual particles. However, if forced by conditions in their locality to drift apart upon forming, they become a neutron and an antineutron and immediately undergo beta decay, in which, the neutron decays to a proton, an electron and an antineutrino and the antineutron decays to an antiproton, a positron and a neutrino.
Energy is the relative motion of the elements. Given the properties of the medium, the mechanics of matter particles must be such that it induces three types of energy in the surroundings, which represents three types of motion, namely oscillatory, angular and impulses. The impulses travel as wave packets in the form of solitons. While each of the different types of motion represent a different form of energy, the solitons are quantised form of energy, namely photons, hence the description of the photon as a wave-particle. The other two types of motion are distinguished as thermal energy and magnetic fields respectively. The quantum field of a matter particle is therefore a combination of all three types of energy. However, a particle’s internal energy does not include photons, because as impulse waves, photons are created and absorbed at the perimeter of particles. Temperature is the amplitude of oscillation of the elements forming the particles and their quantum fields.
The level of energy (angular speed, amplitude of oscillation and impulse waves) in a quantum field diminishes with increased radial distance away from the particle. When particles condense to form an object, their quantum fields merge producing a much stronger unified field around the object. Like that of a particle, the intensity of the quantum field of an object drops with increased distance away from the object. Consequently, an object crossing the quantum field of another in space acquires spin and experiences change in speed in an angular trajectory around the host object, hence the concepts of space-time warping and acceleration due to gravity. Gravity is therefore the result of interaction of the magnetic fields of two bodies. In the case of the interaction of fields of three objects, or more, the outcome depends on their relative masses, relative positions and velocities when entering each other’s magnetic fields. More on particles’ magnetic field interaction later.
Whereas gravity, as the outcome of interaction of magnetic fields is relatively weak because it does not involve mass, the other quantum forces, namely, the strong, the weak and the electromagnetic forces are much stronger because they emanate from pressure difference across particles due to the existence of mass. This makes the range of their effect extremely short and limited to within the vicinity of the particles. Each of the forces is induced by particles having different structures. In fact, the apparent infinite range of the electromagnetic force is an illusion, because the apparent force is due to the propagation of non-gravitational mass as energy packets— i.e., photons. Therefore, as well as being considered an energy packet, a photon could be described as a wave packet whose energy is converted to mass when it collapse on an object. Therefore, the range of the electromagnetic force at the level of an individual photon is limited to the location at which the photon collapses to do work, e.g. the dislodging of an electron in the photoelectric effect.
Since the oscillation period of the elements is invariable regardless of amplitude, it follows that the higher the amplitude, the greater the acceleration they experience as they oscillate. Consequently, waves travelling through the medium do so at constant speed, namely the speed of light. Therefore, the medium is isotropic and no object could travel faster than an impulse wave, because any structure travelling though it must generate waves that limit its speed. If an object happens to exceed the speed of the waves it creates, it would form a discontinuity in the fabric, exposing the background vacuum. In other words, it would create mass and as such it would become unobservable, because a discontinuity in the fabric of space is essentially a singularity, which light cannot transverse. The constant period of oscillation and isotropic nature of the medium makes the UP hypothesis compliant with the two postulates of special relativity.
Given their continuity in space, elements forming a quantum field spin and counter-spin in a unified orientation. Where fields of different orientation interface, the resultant motion of the elements is determined by their relative density, which is a function of their amplitude, speed and orientation. With an invariable period of oscillation equals the Planck time, a UP receives and transmits impulse action in a multitude of directions and intensities almost simultaneously. Therefore, any one or a group of UPs can be part of different waves propagating in different directions almost simultaneously. UPs may oscillate against each other and oscillate coherently in groups, as phonons.
From here on, I shall refer to the massless elements of the fabric of space as universal particles (UPs), hence the name of the hypothesis and I shall refer to the pressure at which the UPs exist as the universal pressure.
Since the electric charge is associated with matter particles, and since those particles are structures composed of UPs, the electric charge must be part of those structures. To find out what an electric charge is and how it works, let us begin by considering the effect of the action of a newly formed string element on other elements in it immediate surroundings.
As the string rotates, UPs in direct contact with its ends must acquire spin in the opposite direction, and since they are oscillating, they must transfer that spin to other UPs against which they oscillate. With the continuous rotation of the string generating negative pressure, UPs spinning around it are continually expelled to the perimeter. In a specific time, they form a tight ring around the string. The ring is the electric charge of the particle and to maintain spin and rotation, only alternate UPs in the ring remain in direct contact with the ends of the string. Fig 1, illustrates the concept of the electric charge of a proton. It should be noted that the direction of rotation of the charge defines its polarity, while the number of UPs forming it represents its magnitude. It should also be noted that the mass to charge ratio is constant, hence the constant value of the elementary charge of subatomic particles.
To maintain spin and rotation of the charge, the number of UPs forming it is always even. It cannot be odd, because the spin of an unpaired UP would interfere with other spinning pairs in the charge and as such it is expelled. In multi-nucleon atoms, string elements form a stack of rotating strings, causing alternate nucleons to lose their charges due to interference between their charges, and thus they appear as neutrons. However, when a neutron is expelled from the atom, it forms a charge, which produces an electron and an antineutrino. Exact details of the mechanism of forming electrons, neutrinos, multi-nucleon atoms and molecular structures are beyond the scope of this post, but they will be covered in a future post.
The charge drives UPs around it in its direction of rotation forming a magnetic field. The speed of rotation of UPs forming the field drops with increased radial distance from the charge, because as the perimeter becomes longer, the number of UPs increases and consequently inertia and slippage become more significant. A string element having no electric charge, such as the neutron also drives the surrounding elements in its direction of rotation as its magnetic field. However, it does so with much less intensity, which explains the weaker magnetic field of the neutron in comparison with that of the proton. The magnetic moment of a proton is approximately 46 percent greater than that of the neutron. The difference in mass between the two particles is a consequence of the presence of the charge around the proton, which restricts its mass slightly. A conceptual model of the proton is shown in Fig 2. The neutron could be envisaged as the same particles, less the electric charge.
The magnetic field of a particle forms part of the particle and is made of the UPs rotating around and driven by the string element and the electric charge. The field extents someway away from the particle. In theory, it extends to infinity in space and in time and therefore, when modelling particles in quantum field theories, it is difficult to decide where a particle’s boundaries are, hence the reason for renormalisation of the relevant mathematical models. Particles are in fact considered perturbations in the fields in some gauge theories. However, the detectable effect of a particle on its surroundings, hence the extent of its field is limited, and the limit depends on the magnitude of its mass and the pressure distribution it creates in the field.
The practical boundaries of a particle in its quantum field, hence its physical extent is determined by the distance at which it attracts or repels another having a charge of same magnitude, be it of the same or opposite polarity. It is the distance within which the positive pressure on UPs equals the negative pressure within the mass. There is a certain radial distance between like particles and opposite polarity particles within which they forcefully repel or attract one another due to the high density of UPs resulting from the pressure induced by the mass. Beyond that distance the effect is reversed, so that like polarity particles attract and opposite polarity particles repel — Fig 3 and Fig 4. As such, matter and antimatter particles survive encountering each other in space, where they can drift apart without being forced to close encounters with one another.
It is therefore appropriate to define a distance around particles at which repulsion and attraction forces are balanced as the direct magnetic field. It is the radial distance away from the charge, or the string ends in neutral particles, at which the effect of change in pressure produced by the mass around the particle become negligible. It is helpful to use the term direct in reference to this magnetic field to distinguish it from the general magnetic field of the particle, which in theory extends to infinity. This definition is significant to understanding the interaction between particles of like polarity and opposite polarity at any given radial distance between them.
A useful image to have in mind to appreciate the complexity of motion in a particle’s magnetic field is that UPs forming the direct magnetic field of a particle rotate around the charge as well as alternate in spin and counter-spin as they oscillate against different partners. They momentarily acquire spin in one direction as they pair up, they then break up and pair with another partner, which cause them to lose spin or acquire counter-spin.
 Amplitude of oscillation is the maximum distance between UPs as they oscillate.
 A soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet that maintains its shape while it propagates at a constant velocity.
 The postulates of special relativity state that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference, and the speed of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference.
 Phonons describe particles oscillating harmonically in-phase as a single object.