## The Ideal Gas Law Revisited

In this post, I explain the ideal gas law in light of The UP Hypothesisinterpretation of physical reality and identify the nature of its constant R. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating massless elements of spherical geometry, referred to as Universal Particles (UPs), which in the absence of mass exist as a continuum under neutral pressure. It defines energy as the motion of those elements, which could be oscillatory, curvilinear or a combination, with temperature as the amplitude of oscillation of UPs. It defines stable matter particles as localized dynamic structures, which develop mass as the exposed background vacuum. The presence of mass alters the pressure distribution in the locality of particles, with mass under negative pressure and the surrounding UPs under positive pressure. Continue reading “The Ideal Gas Law Revisited”

## G is for Gravity

As the title implies, this post is about gravity. It is not so much about the force of gravity, but gravity as an acceleration field having a constant parameter referred to as the gravitational constant, denoted G, which is otherwise known as Newton’s gravitational constant. This constant appears in Newton’s gravitational law and in Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Though it features in both Newtonian & Einsteinian definitions of gravity, its physical significance remains ambiguous.

In this post, I shall reveal its physical significance in simple language and very little mathematics, but in accordance with the definition of the atom, which I covered in my post Anatomy of Atoms and which is based on the UP hypothesis.

In Newtonian physics gravity is defined as radial acceleration produces by an object towards its centre of mass. Therefore, any object that has mass has a gravitational field. Based on this definition, any material object entering the gravitational field of another is immediately attracted to it and attracts it. The question of what constitutes a physical field and causes matter to accelerate has never been answered satisfactorily and therefor the nature of gravity has remained ambiguous! Continue reading “G is for Gravity”

## Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, Quantum Gyroscopes. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.

In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”

## Quantum Gyroscopes

This post is a continuation from the previous one, the UP hypothesis. Here, I reveal more of physics in terms of the fabric of space as defined by that hypothesis. After explaining how and why the electron comes into existence and neutralise the proton in the most basic of atoms— the hydrogen atom, I will reveal the source of neutrinos, or rather antineutrinos, and explain the reason behind their abundance in space.

First however, I must confess that in my previous post I kept out an important consequence relating to the internal mechanics of the string elements forming matter particles. I intentionally kept it out to avoid over loading the reader with many new concepts. Now, I can reveal that each of the string element becomes gyroscopic in the plane of spin of the elements of the field in which it forms and cannot be turned in any other orientation. Attempting to gain access to it to physically force it to change orientation would cause it to decay. This sub-quantum reality of string elements is confirmed by the observed behaviour (precession) of protons in strong external magnetic fields, in which protons wobble about their axes of rotation. Continue reading “Quantum Gyroscopes”

## Gravity and the standard model

The UP hypothesis, which is the subject of my book ‘Physical Reality – the fabric of space’, describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter particles as localized dynamic structures, with mass being the background vacuum exposed by the dynamics of the elements forming the particles. It defines energy as the motion of those elements relative to the observer and identifies two types of motions induced by matter particles in the surrounding medium— one is oscillatory and the other is uniform angular motion. Whilst we distinguish the former as thermal energy, the latter represents quantum fields rotating around the particles that induce them. Other types of motion of the elements are possible, but they are not produced by individual matter particles. Rather, they are the result of the action of systems of forces.

Quantum fields are generated by the spin of the source particles, which is essentially the rotation of the structure formed by the elements of the fabric of space. The quantum field of a particle decrease in intensity with increased radial distance. When particles condense to form an object, their quantum fields merge producing much stronger field around the entire object, hence the relationship between mass and quantum field intensity. Like that of a particle, the speed of rotation, hence the observed magnitude of such a field drops with increased distance from the object. Consequently, an object crossing it experiences acceleration as it nears the source object, hence the concept of warping of space-time and acceleration due to gravity. Continue reading “Gravity and the standard model”

## My Take On Physical Reality: A Quantum Perspective

Out there, beyond the bounds of consciousness, one imagines the existence of a colourful world of sounds, smells, tastes and textures. However, nothing like that exists except in the mind. In reality, what exists is a heaving world of particles that have no colour, make no sound, produce no odour, possess no taste or sensation. That includes the apparently empty outer space.

In processing a continuum of signals from the surroundings, and from within our bodies, our brains give us a sense of continuity of existence in space and in time. However, that continuity is false. At some level, below the level of atoms and molecules, that continuity breaks down revealing the reality of the world as bits. At such a level, reality becomes individual elements of space and time. Each such element defines the smallest possible location in space and its oscillation defines the shortest possible time epoch. The smallest dimension of such a space is referred to in physics as the Planck length and the time it takes it to oscillate is referred to as the Planck time. Continue reading “My Take On Physical Reality: A Quantum Perspective”