The book presents a novel view on physical reality, which focuses on the fabric of space as the source of that reality. It encapsulates all major theories in physics in a single framework of logic. Those theories include general relativity, quantum theory, string theory and loop quantum gravity. It does so by introducing a hypothesis, which quantises the fabric of space and defines its quanta as massless elementary particles that give rise to matter, energy and time. The pinnacle of success of the hypothesis is its logical explanation of the structure and workings of the atom and the arrangement of subatomic particles in atoms of different chemical elements. Continue reading “About this book!”

# Tag: mass

## Calabi—Yau manifolds & the M-theory

This post follows on from the UP hypothesis.

String theory encompasses a group of models, which advocate the concept of elementary particles as vibrating strings. In some instances, space is regarded as a fabric of woven strings, which when torn at some quantum locality, it exposes the background vacuum that represents the mass of a newly formed particle. In other instances, the theory proposes that a particle develops mass as a vibrating string, so that its mass is the exposed background vacuum maintained by its level of oscillation, which reflect its energy level. Therefore, the greater the level of oscillation, the greater the mass. Thus, energy is defined as string vibration. Strings could be open-ended or closed loops. Continue reading “Calabi—Yau manifolds & the M-theory”

## The Ideal Gas Law Revisited

In this post, I explain the ideal gas law in light of *The UP Hypothesis’ *interpretation of physical reality and identify the nature of its constant *R*. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating massless elements of spherical geometry, referred to as Universal Particles (UPs), which in the absence of mass exist as a continuum under neutral pressure. It defines energy as the motion of those elements, which could be oscillatory, curvilinear or a combination, with temperature as the amplitude of oscillation of UPs. It defines stable matter particles as localized dynamic structures, which develop mass as the exposed background vacuum. The presence of mass alters the pressure distribution in the locality of particles, with mass under negative pressure and the surrounding UPs under positive pressure. Continue reading “The Ideal Gas Law Revisited”

## G is for Gravity

As the title implies, this post is about gravity. It is not so much about the force of gravity, but gravity as an acceleration field having a constant parameter referred to as the gravitational constant, denoted G, which is otherwise known as Newton’s gravitational constant. This constant appears in Newton’s gravitational law and in Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Though it features in both Newtonian & Einsteinian definitions of gravity, its physical significance remains ambiguous.

In this post, I shall reveal its physical significance in simple language and very little mathematics, but in accordance with the definition of the atom, which I covered in my post* Anatomy of Atoms *and which is based on *the UP hypothesis*.

In Newtonian physics gravity is defined as radial acceleration produces by an object towards its centre of mass. Therefore, any object that has mass has a gravitational field. Based on this definition, any material object entering the gravitational field of another is immediately attracted to it and attracts it. The question of what constitutes a physical field and causes matter to accelerate has never been answered satisfactorily and therefor the nature of gravity has remained ambiguous! Continue reading “G is for Gravity”

## Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on *The** UP** Hypothesis*, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, *Quantum Gyroscopes*. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.

In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”

## Quantum Gyroscopes

This post is a continuation from the previous one, the UP hypothesis. Here, I reveal more of physics in terms of the fabric of space as defined by that hypothesis. After explaining how and why the electron comes into existence and neutralise the proton in the most basic of atoms— the hydrogen atom, I will reveal the source of neutrinos, or rather antineutrinos, and explain the reason behind their abundance in space.

First however, I must confess that in my previous post I kept out an important consequence relating to the internal mechanics of the string elements forming matter particles. I intentionally kept it out to avoid over loading the reader with many new concepts. Now, I can reveal that each of the string element becomes gyroscopic in the plane of spin of the elements of the field in which it forms and cannot be turned in any other orientation. Attempting to gain access to it to physically force it to change orientation would cause it to decay. This sub-quantum reality of string elements is confirmed by the observed behaviour (precession) of protons in strong external magnetic fields, in which protons wobble about their axes of rotation. Continue reading “Quantum Gyroscopes”

## The UP Hypothesis

In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.

In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.

In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.

The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.

The hypothesis states: Continue reading “The UP Hypothesis”