Anatomy of Atoms

In this post, I shall present one piece of compelling evidence in support of The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post under that title. I therefore urge interested readers to familiarise themselves with the hypothesis in that post before continuing with this one. The evidence I shall present here is not new information. It is information based on research findings that has been in the public domain for some time and relates to a physical phenomenon that has been ambiguously explained in somehow self-contradicting terms. The phenomenon is manifest in the inverse relationship between the number of protons in atoms of different chemical elements and their respective radii in every period in the periodic table.

Atomic radii in any one period in the periodic table are found to progressively shrink with increased number of protons, so that the greater the number, the smaller the radius of the atom, up to and including the noble gas in that period. Then, the addition of a proton to form the first element in the following period sees drastic increase in its radius. For example, the radius of the hydrogen atom is larger than that of helium. However, in the next element, namely lithium, which marks the start of the second period in the table, instead of a further reduction in the radius of the atom, we observe a drastic increase. Continue reading “Anatomy of Atoms”

Advertisements

Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, Quantum Gyroscopes. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.

In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”

Quantum Gyroscopes

This post is a continuation from the previous one, the UP hypothesis. Here, I reveal more of physics in terms of the fabric of space as defined by that hypothesis. After explaining how and why the electron comes into existence and neutralise the proton in the most basic of atoms— the hydrogen atom, I will reveal the source of neutrinos, or rather antineutrinos, and explain the reason behind their abundance in space.

First however, I must confess that in my previous post I kept out an important consequence relating to the internal mechanics of the string elements forming matter particles. I intentionally kept it out to avoid over loading the reader with many new concepts. Now, I can reveal that each of the string element becomes gyroscopic in the plane of spin of the elements of the field in which it forms and cannot be turned in any other orientation. Attempting to gain access to it to physically force it to change orientation would cause it to decay. This sub-quantum reality of string elements is confirmed by the observed behaviour (precession) of protons in strong external magnetic fields, in which protons wobble about their axes of rotation. Continue reading “Quantum Gyroscopes”

The UP Hypothesis

In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.

In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.

In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.

The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.

The hypothesis states: Continue reading “The UP Hypothesis”

Quantum Entropy

This post follows on from my previous one, Systemic Behaviour of Matter Particles, which was based on a hypothesis that describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter particles as dynamics structures in spin motion, and it defines energy as the motion of those elements. Thus, a stable matter particles maintains spin and a quantum field around itself in the form of elements of space rotating around it in the direction of spin. In this post, I shall continue to explore those particles as thermodynamic systems and investigate their compliance with the laws of thermodynamics. Continue reading “Quantum Entropy”

Systemic Behaviour of Matter Particles

This post is based on a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is the subject of a book titled ‘Physical Reality – the fabric of space’. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a physical medium of discrete spherical elements permeating all space, and oscillating at an invariable period of Planck time. The diameter of an elements is the Planck length. As such, their frequency is constant and their amplitude of oscillation is independent of their frequency, and reflects temperature. The hypothesis defines energy as the motion of the elements of the fabric of space, be it oscillatory or curvilinear, and it defines matter particles as dynamic structures that form from those elements. Thus, quantum fields reflect the behaviour of the elements of the fabric of space in the immediate surroundings of the particles, which result from their interaction with the fabric of space. The hypothesis defines all other properties of matter particles, including electric charge and quantum spin number in terms of the mechanics of the elements of space forming the particles. However, it defines mass as the exposed background vacuum.

Considering individual matter particles as thermodynamics systems may seem a farfetched idea. The main reason is that the structure of subatomic particles has remained ambiguous and detached from the fabric of space with which it interacts. Based on the proposed hypothesis, it will become clear that subatomic particles are essentially systems the inner working of which is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. However, before I appeal to the laws of thermodynamics to define matter particles as thermodynamic systems, it is appropriate to define what is meant by a system and outline the different types of thermodynamic systems. Continue reading “Systemic Behaviour of Matter Particles”

Modelling Supernovae & Black Holes!

Given the existence of a space fabric as a fluid medium with which matter interacts, it is possible to physically model many physical phenomena at both quantum and galactic levels. Discarding the existence and effect of such a medium is the main reason behind the irreconcilability of some theories and inexplicable behaviour of objects at both quantum and galactic levels.

To develop a conceptual model of a system, the conscious mind begins by linking simple concepts to form mathematical relations. For example, by realizing that the flow rate from a water tap depends on the number of tap turns, a mathematical model is developed. It is then possible to relate the volume of water collected to the duration it takes to collected it, for a given number of tap turns. Relating a system’s variables to each other correctly is all that is needed to develop a mathematical model. This simple water-tap example could be extended to predict the flow rate of water through any pipe. To do that, the model must include all relevant parameters that affect water flow, which include pressure head, pipe diameter, length, and surface roughness. Continue reading “Modelling Supernovae & Black Holes!”