Anatomy of Atoms

In this post, I shall present one piece of compelling evidence in support of The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post under that title. I therefore urge interested readers to familiarise themselves with the hypothesis in that post before continuing with this one. The evidence I shall present here is not new information. It is information based on research findings that has been in the public domain for some time and relates to a physical phenomenon that has been ambiguously explained in somehow self-contradicting terms. The phenomenon is manifest in the inverse relationship between the number of protons in atoms of different chemical elements and their respective radii in every period in the periodic table.

Atomic radii in any one period in the periodic table are found to progressively shrink with increased number of protons, so that the greater the number, the smaller the radius of the atom, up to and including the noble gas in that period. Then, the addition of a proton to form the first element in the following period sees drastic increase in its radius. For example, the radius of the hydrogen atom is larger than that of helium. However, in the next element, namely lithium, which marks the start of the second period in the table, instead of a further reduction in the radius of the atom, we observe a drastic increase. Continue reading “Anatomy of Atoms”

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Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, Quantum Gyroscopes. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.

In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”

Quantum Gyroscopes

This post is a continuation from the previous one, the UP hypothesis. Here, I reveal more of physics in terms of the fabric of space as defined by that hypothesis. After explaining how and why the electron comes into existence and neutralise the proton in the most basic of atoms— the hydrogen atom, I will reveal the source of neutrinos, or rather antineutrinos, and explain the reason behind their abundance in space.

First however, I must confess that in my previous post I kept out an important consequence relating to the internal mechanics of the string elements forming matter particles. I intentionally kept it out to avoid over loading the reader with many new concepts. Now, I can reveal that each of the string element becomes gyroscopic in the plane of spin of the elements of the field in which it forms and cannot be turned in any other orientation. Attempting to gain access to it to physically force it to change orientation would cause it to decay. This sub-quantum reality of string elements is confirmed by the observed behaviour (precession) of protons in strong external magnetic fields, in which protons wobble about their axes of rotation. Continue reading “Quantum Gyroscopes”

Quantum Entropy

This post follows on from my previous one, Systemic Behaviour of Matter Particles, which was based on a hypothesis that describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter particles as dynamics structures in spin motion, and it defines energy as the motion of those elements. Thus, a stable matter particles maintains spin and a quantum field around itself in the form of elements of space rotating around it in the direction of spin. In this post, I shall continue to explore those particles as thermodynamic systems and investigate their compliance with the laws of thermodynamics. Continue reading “Quantum Entropy”