About this book!

The book presents a novel view on physical reality, which focuses on the fabric of space as the source of that reality. It encapsulates all major theories in physics in a single framework of logic. Those theories include general relativity, quantum theory, string theory and loop quantum gravity. It does so by introducing a hypothesis, which quantises the fabric of space and defines its quanta as massless elementary particles that give rise to matter, energy and time. The pinnacle of success of the hypothesis is its logical explanation of the structure and workings of the atom and the arrangement of subatomic particles in atoms of different chemical elements.

The book reflects the author’s perspective on physical reality as a structural design engineer, who has the task of designing a universe that produces the phenomena observed in our expanding universe. This is reflected in his approach in presenting his solutions to unanswered questions in physics by graphical illustrations, before relating them to existing theories in mathematics. This approach differs from that of theoretical physicists, who would normally further their theories and arguments through mathematical formalism.

The immediate implication of the hypothesis is that matter, energy and time emerge as properties of space. Following a brief introduction to the book in the first chapter, the author goes on to discuss the concept of physical space in chapter 2. Then in chapter 3, he introduces the concept of quantised space-time as a formal hypothesis.

The most likely structure is identified and defined as 6D manifolds, which can possess mass and electric charge in 4D space-time. In a series of subsections in chapter 3, the author then defines the mechanisms of pair production, the electric charge, magnetic fields, electron and neutrino production, antimatter and the different types of mass that can exist in the space-time. From the proposed structure and mechanics of subatomic particles, he deduces the workings of the hydrogen atom and subsequently the configuration and workings of multinucleon atoms in chapter 4.0. By so doing, he reveals the physical significance of Pauli’s exclusion principle.

Having defined the nature of mass, he then goes on to interpret E=mc² in light of the hypothesis in chapter 5.0. The mechanics of matter particles is such that their interaction with the fabric of space dictates that they induce gravity in the surroundings and emit electromagnetic waves. These two phenomena he explains in some detail in chapters 6.0 and 7.0 respectively. In chapter 8.0, the author explains the M-theory in the context of the proposed hypothesis. In chapter 9.0— the final chapter, he discusses the implication of the hypothesis on understanding space-time and the phenomena of black holes and worm holes. He then concludes that chapter by considering some quantum mechanical concepts. He explains the nature of the wave-function and the extent of the entanglement of quantum systems, before revealing the reason behind Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

The book contains many sketches that illustrate the concepts presented. However, the mathematical content is minimal.



Links to e-book on Amazon:

UK:  https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B0791CFXDJ

US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0791CFXDJ



Calabi—Yau manifolds & the M-theory

This post follows on from the UP hypothesis.

String theory encompasses a group of models, which advocate the concept of elementary particles as vibrating strings. In some instances, space is regarded as a fabric of woven strings, which when torn at some quantum locality, it exposes the background vacuum that represents the mass of a newly formed particle. In other instances, the theory proposes that a particle develops mass as a vibrating string, so that its mass is the exposed background vacuum maintained by its level of oscillation, which reflect its energy level. Therefore, the greater the level of oscillation, the greater the mass. Thus, energy is defined as string vibration. Strings could be open-ended or closed loops. Continue reading “Calabi—Yau manifolds & the M-theory”

Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe

In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, Quantum Gyroscopes. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.

In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”

The UP Hypothesis

In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.

In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.

In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.

The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.

The hypothesis states: Continue reading “The UP Hypothesis”