Anatomy of Atoms

In this post, I shall present one piece of compelling evidence in support of The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post under that title. I therefore urge interested readers to familiarise themselves with the hypothesis in that post before continuing with this one. The evidence I shall present here is not new information. It is information based on research findings that has been in the public domain for some time and relates to a physical phenomenon that has been ambiguously explained in somehow self-contradicting terms. The phenomenon is manifest in the inverse relationship between the number of protons in atoms of different chemical elements and their respective radii in every period in the periodic table.

Atomic radii in any one period in the periodic table are found to progressively shrink with increased number of protons, so that the greater the number, the smaller the radius of the atom, up to and including the noble gas in that period. Then, the addition of a proton to form the first element in the following period sees drastic increase in its radius. For example, the radius of the hydrogen atom is larger than that of helium. However, in the next element, namely lithium, which marks the start of the second period in the table, instead of a further reduction in the radius of the atom, we observe a drastic increase. Continue reading “Anatomy of Atoms”


The UP Hypothesis

In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.

In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.

In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.

The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.

The hypothesis states: Continue reading “The UP Hypothesis”

Quantum Entropy

This post follows on from my previous one, Systemic Behaviour of Matter Particles, which was based on a hypothesis that describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating spherical and massless elements that give rise to matter particles as dynamics structures in spin motion, and it defines energy as the motion of those elements. Thus, a stable matter particles maintains spin and a quantum field around itself in the form of elements of space rotating around it in the direction of spin. In this post, I shall continue to explore those particles as thermodynamic systems and investigate their compliance with the laws of thermodynamics. Continue reading “Quantum Entropy”