In this post, I explain the ideal gas law in light of The UP Hypothesis’ interpretation of physical reality and identify the nature of its constant R. The hypothesis defines the fabric of space as a medium of oscillating massless elements of spherical geometry, referred to as Universal Particles (UPs), which in the absence of mass exist as a continuum under neutral pressure. It defines energy as the motion of those elements, which could be oscillatory, curvilinear or a combination, with temperature as the amplitude of oscillation of UPs. It defines stable matter particles as localized dynamic structures, which develop mass as the exposed background vacuum. The presence of mass alters the pressure distribution in the locality of particles, with mass under negative pressure and the surrounding UPs under positive pressure. Continue reading “The Ideal Gas Law Revisited”
In this post, I shall present one piece of compelling evidence in support of The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post under that title. I therefore urge interested readers to familiarise themselves with the hypothesis in that post before continuing with this one. The evidence I shall present here is not new information. It is information based on research findings that has been in the public domain for some time and relates to a physical phenomenon that has been ambiguously explained in somehow self-contradicting terms. The phenomenon is manifest in the inverse relationship between the number of protons in atoms of different chemical elements and their respective radii in every period in the periodic table.
Atomic radii in any one period in the periodic table are found to progressively shrink with increased number of protons, so that the greater the number, the smaller the radius of the atom, up to and including the noble gas in that period. Then, the addition of a proton to form the first element in the following period sees drastic increase in its radius. For example, the radius of the hydrogen atom is larger than that of helium. However, in the next element, namely lithium, which marks the start of the second period in the table, instead of a further reduction in the radius of the atom, we observe a drastic increase. Continue reading “Anatomy of Atoms”
In this post, I identify and discuss the different types of mass that must exist in particles and in quantum fields. The post is based on The UP Hypothesis, which I introduced in a previous post and its follow-up, Quantum Gyroscopes. In those posts, I defined various phenomenon in line with that hypothesis and explained how stable matter particles and their quantum fields form from elements of the fabric of space, which are referred to as Universal Particles (UPs). Therefore, understanding the contents of the two previous posts is essential to understanding this one.
In quantum field theories, particles are considered to arise from their quantum fields as field quanta. For example, the photon is considered the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In effect, a particle represents a localized effect in its quantum field, which is described in some gauge theories as a perturbation. This description does not apply to particles mediating the strong force, because the theory could not be extended to them. The reason, according to the UP hypothesis, is that those particles are almost detached from the surrounding medium and behave as independent structures, though they interact with the fabric of space to produce quantum fields. Continue reading “Mass Types & The Ultraviolet Catastrophe”
In this post, I outline a hypothesis which describes physical reality in terms of the behaviour of the fabric of space and the interaction of its constituents. It is not a theory that attempts to model a specific phenomenon or replace an existing theory. It is a hypothesis that gives physical significance to all existing theories in physics and in mathematics.
In physics, it rationalises phenomena such as matter, energy, mass, forces, electric charge, quantum field, quantum spin, etc. and defines them in independent physical terms. As such, it reveals the reason behind the apparent conflict between classical and quantum mechanics and explains in full details the workings of the atom as a coherent physical system. Consequently, it introduces a conceptual relationship between mass and energy and removes all myths from quantum theory. In full agreement with all major theories, the hypothesis explains the need for the extra dimensions demanded by string theory.
In mathematics, the hypothesis exposes a link between physical phenomena and their mathematical models and eliminates wrong assumptions held as axioms on which geometric modelling is based. Thus, it explains the reality behind irrational and complex numbers and reveals the power and limitation of mathematics as an input language for information processing systems, including the human brain.
The hypothesis is simple enough for anyone to understand. However, its implications for explaining physical reality are far reaching. With good understanding of mechanics, the hypothesis can be used to explain all physical phenomena from the smallest of subatomic particles to the largest of galactic clusters. In fact, the existence of all such phenomena is demanded by the hypothesis.
The hypothesis states: Continue reading “The UP Hypothesis”