Einstein’s famous equation E = mc^2 encapsulates the relationship between mass and energy. However, explaining the appearance of the square of the speed of light as a constant of proportionality proved to be an insurmountable challenge for physicists. They could only point out the colossal energy contained in a small amount of mass, which is immediately obvious from the magnitude of the speed of light. But, why the speed of light? What is its significance in the relationship? And why squared?
These and many other questions in physics remain unanswered, because the source of physical reality and the effect it has on all physical phenomena have been totally discarded. Therefore, phenomena such as matter, mass, energy, electric charge, light, gravity, time, etc., treated as independent quantities that arise out of nothing!
In this post, I shall reveal the reason behind the appearance of the speed of light [c], in Einstein’s equation and explain why it has to be squared. This, I shall do with reference to the fabric of space and the nature of matter and energy as quantities derived from that fabric. And in order to save the reader going over previous posts for the relevant information, I shall begin by defining those parameter. However, for the sake of brevity, I shall not explain why those definitions hold true. Continue reading “Why does E/m = c^2?”
Given the existence of a space fabric as a fluid medium with which matter interacts, it is possible to physically model many physical phenomena at both quantum and galactic levels. Discarding the existence and effect of such a medium is the main reason behind the irreconcilability of some theories and inexplicable behaviour of objects at both quantum and galactic levels.
To develop a conceptual model of a system, the conscious mind begins by linking simple concepts to form mathematical relations. For example, by realizing that the flow rate from a water tap depends on the number of tap turns, a mathematical model is developed. It is then possible to relate the volume of water collected to the duration it takes to collected it, for a given number of tap turns. Relating a system’s variables to each other correctly is all that is needed to develop a mathematical model. This simple water-tap example could be extended to predict the flow rate of water through any pipe. To do that, the model must include all relevant parameters that affect water flow, which include pressure head, pipe diameter, length, and surface roughness. Continue reading “Modelling Supernovae & Black Holes!”
In this post I shall discuss the nature of π as a mathematical constant and reveal its relationship with the fabric of space. As an irrational number π represents the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio (a/b), where (a) and (b) are integers and (b≠0).
Returning briefly to the cubical universe, which we considered in a previous post, if the observer there begins to probe his world at the level of the individual cubes defining his space and decides to form different geometries at that level, he could do so only by using those cubes. He would have no other means. Using cubes to define circles, he would soon discover that the geometric properties of his circles vary according to the orientation of the cubes. For example, the number of elements defining the diameter of the same circle could vary depending upon the orientation of the cubes in the circumference. Therefore, in a universe defined by cubical elements π, as the ratio of the units of length of a circle’s circumference to that of its diameter, cannot be constant. Continue reading “π in the sky!”
In mathematics and in physics, complex numbers are considered mysterious. Although they are essential to solving fundamental problems in science and engineering, their true relationship with the physical world remains ambiguous. For example, why do they have two components, which are referred to as real imaginary parts? Why is the imaginary part closely linked to the square root of minus one? And most importantly, what is their relationship with physical reality. This post answers those questions.
In this post, I shall unravel one of the mysteries of mathematics, that is the mystery of complex numbers. In future posts, I shall unravel other mysteries with reference to the basic elements of physical reality. They include infinity and irrational numbers of which (π) is considered most mysterious. Continue reading “Complex Numbers Unravelled”
Out there, beyond the bounds of consciousness, one imagines the existence of a colourful world of sounds, smells, tastes and textures. However, nothing like that exists except in the mind. In reality, what exists is a heaving world of particles that have no colour, make no sound, produce no odour, possess no taste or sensation. That includes the apparently empty outer space.
In processing a continuum of signals from the surroundings, and from within our bodies, our brains give us a sense of continuity of existence in space and in time. However, that continuity is false. At some level, below the level of atoms and molecules, that continuity breaks down revealing the reality of the world as bits. At such a level, reality becomes individual elements of space and time. Each such element defines the smallest possible location in space and its oscillation defines the shortest possible time epoch. The smallest dimension of such a space is referred to in physics as the Planck length and the time it takes it to oscillate is referred to as the Planck time. Continue reading “My Take On Physical Reality: A Quantum Perspective”
A preview of upcoming lectures on Physical Reality’s YouTube channel.
Welcome to my blog ‘Physical Reality’ and to my first post!
As a design engineer who is extremely curious about how the universe works, I spent a few years conceptualising a model of a universe that would appear like our universe. Having decided on the likely raw material, I spent seven years (2007 – 2014), developing a hypothesis to explain how that material would develop into a fully functioning self-supporting universe. Now, I have reached a level of confidence, which enables me to transpose details of the workings of that model to our physical reality and interpret all physical phenomenon in light of that hypothesis.
We perceive physical reality as having four facets, namely, space, matter, energy and time. Nothing physical can exist beyond those facets. However, our understanding of their nature is severely handicapped by the way the human brain works and how it modulates the signals detected by the senses. We rely on our brains to identify and interact with our surroundings. Our brains receive and process signals captured by our senses. However, those signals do not necessarily convey the entire picture of what is taking place in those surroundings, because the range of signals that our senses can capture is extremely limited. Furthermore, not all that exists in the surroundings produce signals! At times we have to rely on inference in order to understand what is taking place.
In addition to the limited range of signals it can receive and process, the brain has its own limitations, which include restricted filtering of interference, limited speed of signal processing, processing logic limitation, etc. This picture of dependency on limited signal processing leaves little wonder as to the confusion around our understanding of the nature of physical reality at all levels.
In the book ‘Physical Reality: the fabric of space’, I unravel the mysteries of quantum mechanics and unveil the myths associated with maths by explaining its relationship with the physical world.